Many of the common diseases that kill Nigerian children are vaccine-preventable. For example, there are vaccines against pneumonia, measles, diarrhoeal diseases, meningitis, tuberculosis, poliomyelitis, Hepatitis B, diphtheria, tetanus, whooping cough (i.e. pertussis) and yellow fever among others. Cervical cancer – the second most common cancer, which kills many women in Nigeria – can also be prevented by Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) Vaccine. It should be noted that many organisms cause pneumonia and diarrhoea, and that the available vaccines provide protection against some but not all causes of pneumonia and diarrhoea. The good news is that the available vaccines target the deadliest causes of these diseases.